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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIAMURSKY TERRITORY BY RUSSIA
The documents and photos dated from the second half of the XIXth - the beginning of the XXth centuries introduce the visitors the history of joining the Far Eastern territories to the Russian Empire and their settling by Slavs from southern and central provinces of Russia. The museum reconstruction of houses and offices of the main social groups of migrants Cossacks, peasants, merchants and intellectuals is of great interest.
Namely Cossacks - the military-service class - became the first hunters, craftsmen and builders. Being the first frontier guards in this territory they steadily protected the Far Eastern frontiers of Russia. The unique exhibit - a wine-set is of great art and scientific value. It symbolizes friendship and brotherhood of Cossacks. A wine-bowl and wine-cups were made of silver in the technique of colour enamel in the jewelry factory of brothers Khlebnikovs' by the order of the Cossacks chieftain Pechonkin who was the commander of the Amur Cossack army.
In the middle of the XIXth century the state borders of Russia were legalized. In order to protect the eastern frontiers the governor-general of Eastern Siberia N.N. Muravyov organized the first attempts to raft down the Amur river which made for the systematic colonization of Priamurye.
On the 28 of May 1858 in the Manchgurian town Aigun the treaty was signed between Russia and China. According to that document the left bank of the Amur river belonged to Russia. After the Priamursky territories had joined the Russian Empire N.N. Muravyov got a count title with addition to his name Amursky. A picture of the Khabarovsk artist V.E. Romanov "The Aigun treaty" is devoted to this historical event where the moment of the signing of that agreement is shown. In 1860 the Peking treaty was signed. It finally fixed the Russian Far Eastern territories in their present boundaries. One can see the texts of the treaties in the museum exposition.
The borders of the Priamursky Territory which was established in 1884 with the centre in Khabarovka are shown on the map of Eastern Siberia in the interior "The study of the official of the Priamursky general-governorship". Photos and documents inform the visitors how that vast Territory was opened up and ruled by governor-generals. They were educated people, patriots of their country who realized the big significance of the Far Eastern territories for Russia.
After Cossacks peasants from different provinces of Russia migrated to the Far East. Due to Stolypin's reform peasants began to come to the Far East very actively. Significant difficulties, diseases, death were the constant concomitants of those people who ventured to search a new life in the distant borders of the country. "A peasant house" introduces the visitors some domestic appliances. They are a hand spinning-wheel with a comb, a treadle spinning-wheel, a weaver's loom, cast-iron pots, clay vessels for groats. There are also national clothes of Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian migrants (women's and men's shirts, panyovy-skirts) and embroidered towels here. Not less interesting are the agricultural implements (the late XIXth the early XXth centuries) which are exposed near the fragment of a granary - ploughs, axes, a flail, horse- gears.
In the stream of migrants there were not only peasants but also workmen, handicraftsmen and merchants who made the first capital out of furs, fish and barter with aborigines. Merchants began to trade in the northern areas of the Territory with hunters, fishermen and reindeerbreeders. Soon in addition to delivery and sale some tradesmen wanted to produce goods and to start their own business. Exposed portraits of the famous Khabarovsk merchants Plyusnins', Bogdanovs', Pyankovs', Tiphontay, Khmelevtsov, Toporkov and others, banknotes of that time, a counting frame (abacus), steelyards, advertisement booklets help to feel the epoch of free enterprise in the beginning of the XXth century in Khabarovsk. The building of the Amur and the Ussuri sections of the Transsiberian main line became the famous historical event and was finished by opening of the Amur bridge which was built in 1913 - 1916 according to the project of L.D. Proskuryakov and G.P. Peredery. The big section of the exposition is devoted to the orthodoxy which was an integral part of culture of the Slavs-migrants in the Russian Far East. The home-icons where Mary the Virgin and the Lord-the Most High are portrayed, the icons of orthodox holiday and church attributes (crosses, wedding crowns, a thurible, a chalice, a ceremonial vestment of priests) are of great interest.
unique exhibit- the so called shroud of Christ -is a part of Easter
ceremony. It is a symbol of crucified Christ who was wrapped in it.
Historical photos narrate about the first educational and medical institutions
in the Far East, about the first printed publications of the Priamursky
department of the Imperial Geographical Society, about the first newspapers
"Priamurskiye vedomosty" and "Priamurskaya zhisn".
In the interior of the flat of the intellectual there are a writing-desk,
a musical instrument and a dress of a petty bourgeois woman. On display
one can also see a collection of women's bags, a suit, a hat and a cane.
Copyright © 2003 The N. I. Grodekov Khabarovsk Regional Lore Museum. All Rights Reserved